Peninggalan Kolonial 2.

Memelihara peninggalan kolonial semata karena alasan estetik dan historisnya mengabaikan hakekat non-etis dari kolonialisme itu.

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Peninggalan Kolonial

Peninggalan kolonial itu perlu dirpelihara sejauh masih berperan mengingatkan kepedihan dan derita akibat kezaliman kolonialisme, yg menunjukkan kegagalan pretensi Pencerahan.

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KESADARAN

Kalau benar manusia adalah satu-satunya species yang memiliki kesadaran di bumi, bukankah itu berarti mereka harus menjadi kesadaran bagi semua species dan bumi sebagai habitat bersama yang satu?

Bagaimana mewujudkan proposisi itu?
Apakah melalui monoteisme, bahwa manusia adalah pemelihara alam? Atau melalui animisme, bahwa manusia dan unsur-unsur alam lainnya saling mengalir dari yang satu ke yang lain?

Konsep bahwa manusia menjadi kesadaran kolektif seluruh kesatuan alam  mengandung anggapan bahwa manusia adalah alam, dan alam adalah manusia. Manusia tidak istimewa, kecuali kemungkinan perannya sebagai kesadaran bagi semua itu. Tapi hal ini tidak berarti manusia kehilangan identitasnya, kebedaannya. Ia beridentitas, tapi identitasnya melekat sebagai subordinat dari identitas seluruh alam. Identitasnya mengada di dalam hubungan kesatuannya dengan alam.

Kesadaran itu mungkin satu-satunya jalan selamat dari kepunahan.

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A Case for Urban Social Housing for Indonesian Next Government

(Published in the Jakarta Post with different title on Jakarta’s 492nd anniversary. See below)

Marco Kusumawijaya dan Muhammad Zul Qisthi

Housing programme in Indonesia has never been successful enough 67 years after the Housing Congress in 1952, where Muhammad Hatta set the term of 40 years to adequately house all Indonesian people. Housing affordability in Indonesian big cities is already at critical stage. Reports stated among many other things that, if the trend continues, the millennials will never afford adequate housing at all. In fact, a majority of them can no longer afford adequate housing near enough to their workplaces in cities these days. We have seen also that institutional commitment faltered from full separate ministry to three directorate generals within a larger public work and housing ministry.

Housing price rises at always a higher rate than that of anything else in cities. Subsidies to own units in fact and logically helps speculative rise. Imagine subsidy to buy and own a car. It would increase its price similarly. Moreover, when the subsidy is channeled through the supply side (the developers) as it is now, it became so heavily mistargeted and far from being effective, because only 3.72% of home owners bought their houses from developers (and 69,60% built their own houses), according to a survey in 2016.

The fundamental mistake is that subsidies have been given for people to own properties, including landed houses, which is even a greater evil. This is analogical to subsidizing people to buy private cars. The solution is also analogical. In mobility (or transportation) the subsidies are instead used to build and maintain public transports, and the use of them. In housing, the subsidies should be used to build and managed social housing, and the use of them.

By social housing I mean housing that is not meant to generate profits, and it should be available to middle to lower income groups. In practice this means people pay rent at different rates proportionate to their levels of income. A certain level of maximum income is set as an eligibility limit. This is based on the view that housing is a basic need, one of the human rights firmly stated in international covenants, Indonesia constitution (article 28H), housing law and human rights law.  Nowadays it is an essential step to suppress speculation that has actually caused many vacant (even if sold out) apartment units. We see in cities like Berlin and Paris, people are protesting. The Berliners are demanding referendum for the city to expropriate thousands of vacant apartments in it. The city with 3.7 millions population currently has a total of 466,000 social housing units, consisting of 280,000 public housing (managed by government-owned companies) and 186,000 units managed by 80 housing cooperatives. That is 28% of the city’s total housing stock. Jakarta has a total of 27,000 public housing units for its 10.5 million population.

Social housing takes two basic forms. The first type is public housing. It is managed directly by governments, that are usually local. The second is managed by non-profit organizations such as foundations, cooperatives or other forms of association.

In 1961, driven by Hatta’s speech at the 1950 Housing Congress, Indonesia actually managed to build 12,640 housing units through 200 non-profit foundations. It stopped not because of its inherent mistake, but because of hyper-inflation and change of regime that followed.

Subsidies have been fundamental instruments to provide basic needs, especially for goods and services that are essential for dignity and productivity of a society as a whole. For transportation sector, Jakarta government’s subsidy reaches Rp2.8 trillions through PT Trans Jakarta in 2018 and has allocated Rp3.2 trillions for 2019. For its new MRT, every single end-to-end trip is subsidized with Rp23,159 per passenger, totaling to an estimated Rp423.03 billions for its first year operation. This is only for operation, not the building of it. Therefore it is only a matter of priority to also subsidize housing sector.

In housing, it is even more fundamental and urgent. Housing is is firmly stated as a human right in Indonesian constitution UUD 45 article 28H, in Law Number 39/1999 on Human Rights, Law Number 11/2005 on Ratification of International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. On a house there are attached many other rights. A house enables exercises of political rights through secured domicile. 70% of contagious deceases are related to healthy dwelling environment. Good education and learning of children cannot be achieved without adequate housing. Dignified social and cultural interactions require dignified homes.

It is fully understood that our currently built public housing is of low quality. But this can be improved, physically and institutionally. Improvement is indeed a must. Note that in many countries social housings are prestigious projects, designed by excellent architects.

A public apartment complex in Gifu, Kitagata, Jepang, is designed for example by the famous architect SEJIMA Kazuyo.

To conclude: The strategic move to make in housing sector for the next government is reakky to re-orient all subsidies to social housing schemes. Improvements in institutional set up, including agrarian reform, and physical quality should follow suit. Nothing will change and be achieved if we continue with current misguided subsidies for house ownership, which is actually worsening the situation by encouraging speculation.

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Kurasa aku bukan seorang petani…

Jangan khawatir. Ini hanyalah cara untuk menjalani hidup saja. (Zatoichi, Yang Terakhir)

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Tuhan tidak tidur…

Tahunya dari apa? Detak jantung,  mata terbuka?

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Kantong…dan lain-lain yang berlebihan.

Mungkin banyak keluarga kini mengalami ini: punya banyak sekali kantong lipat yang dimaksudkan sebagai pengganti kantong plastik. Banyak yang gratis sejak dikampanyekan bahwa kantong yang dapat dipakai banyak kali ini ramah lingkungan.

Yang mulai berlimpah-limpah adalah juga botol minum segala gaya dan bahan, yang katanya lebih baik sebagai pengganti air kemasan.

Tapi kalau jadi banyak begini, apa emisi karbon-nya tidak malah melampaui apa yang mau digantikan ya, yang katanya tak baik karena menyebabkan emisi karbon?IMG_3759.JPG

Saya merasa bagaimanapun yang penting itu akhirnya mengurangi kebutuhan apa-apa, bukan hanya mengantikan cara dan alat yang satu dengan yang lain untuk memenuhi kebutuhan yang terus meningkat.  Sekarang orang sibuk juga menciptakan pengganti sedotan minuman plastik dengan segala macam bahan lain dan ada juga yang dapat dipakai berulang-ulang….tapi lalu harus dibuat juga alat-alat untuk membersihkannya….hahaha. Mengapa tidak minum saja langsung dari gels atau cangkir seperti dulu. Tokh misalnya kalau minum kopi juga masih langsung dari cangkir.

Saya mau kutip nasehat yang dimuat di di dalam surat wasiat (testamen!!) dari Majoor  The Goan Tjing (1795-1851) ini kepada anak-anaknya: (dikutp dari Onghokham, Riwayat Tionghoa Peranakan di Jawa, 2017:43)

“Papa pesen pada anak-anak, dalem segala perkara djangan pake ongkos lebi banjak dari apa jang paling perloe sadja; kaloewarkenlah sadja ongkos jang patoet, maski sedikit, itoe jang paling baek.”

 

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